

PiP: a software for calculating vibration from underground railways
Developed by: Dr. Mohammed Hussein and Dr. Hugh Hunt
PiP software is a powerful computational tool for calculating vibration from underground railways and for assessing the performance of vibration countermeasures. The software has a userfriendly interface and it uses the stateoftheart techniques to perform quick calculations for the problem. The software employs a model of a slab track coupled to a circular tunnel embedded in the ground. The software calculates the Power Spectral Density (PSD) of the vertical displacement at any selected point in the soil. Excitation is assumed to be due to an infinitelylong train moving on a slabtrack supported at the tunnel bed. The PSD is calculated for a roughness excitation of a unit value (i.e. "white noise"). The software also calculates the Insertion Gain (IG) which is the ratio between the PSD displacement after and before changing parameters of the track, tunnel or soil.
Version 4 of the software accounts for important developments of the numerical model. The tunnel wall is modelled as a thick shell (using the elastic continuum theory) rather than a thin shell. More importantly, the numerical model accounts now for a tunnel embedded in a half space rather than a full space as done in the previous versions. The software can now be used to calculate vibration due to a number of typical PSD roughnesses for rails in good, average and bad conditions.
